Sugars in infant formulas pose risk to babies with inherited metabolic disorder

Babies with inherited intolerance of fructose face a risk of acute liver failure if they are fed certain widely available formulas containing fructose, pediatricians and geneticists are warning. Baby formula manufacturers should remove fructose or sucrose, or explicitly label their products to allow parents to avoid those sweeteners if necessary, the doctors say.

Diabetes researchers find switch for fatty liver disease

Researchers have identified a key fork in the road for the way the liver deals with carbohydrates, fats and protein. They say it could be a promising new target for combating the pandemics of fatty liver disease and prediabetes.

Obesity linked to increased risk of taking up smoking and smoking frequency

Being obese is associated with an increased risk of taking up smoking and smoking frequency (number of cigarettes smoked per day), finds a new study.

For older adults, a better diet may prevent brain shrinkage

People who eat a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts and fish may have bigger brains, according to a new study.

Exercise beats genetics in determining amount of body fat

With obesity now a global epidemic, there is increased focus on risk factors that contribute to weight gain, especially in postmenopausal women. Although many women may blame genetics for their expanding waistlines, a new study shows that as women age they are more likely to overcome genetic predisposition to obesity through exercise.

Some calories more harmful than others

While calories from any food have the potential to increase the risk of obesity and other cardiometabolic diseases, nutrition researchers agree that sugar-sweetened beverages play a unique role in chronic health problems.

A high-fiber diet protects mice against the flu virus

Dietary fiber increases survival in influenza-infected mice by setting the immune system at a healthy level of responsiveness, according to a preclinical study published May 15 in the journal Immunity. A high-fiber diet blunts harmful, excessive immune responses in the lungs while boosting antiviral immunity by activating T cells. These dual benefits were mediated by changes in the composition of gut bacteria.

Expert consensus finds that higher protein intake benefits adult bone health

A new expert consensus has reviewed the benefits and safety of dietary protein for bone health, based on analyses of major research studies.

Big data from world's largest citizen science microbiome project serves food for thought

Researchers have published the first major results from the American Gut Project -- a crowdsourced, global citizen science effort. The project is the largest published study to date of the human microbiome -- the unique microbial communities that inhabit our bodies.

Omega-3, omega-6 in diet alters gene expression in obesity

A new study reveals that essential fats in the diet may play a role in regulating protein secretion in the muscles by changing the way genes associated with secretion act.

Very obese women should lose weight during pregnancy for a healthy baby

Very obese women should actually lose weight during pregnancy in order to have a healthy baby, contrary to current recommendations, according to a new study. The researchers behind the study say the current guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy should be adjusted for better outcomes in underweight and very obese women and their babies.

Healthy diet may lower risk of hearing loss in women

In a new study, researchers examined the relation between three different diets and risk of developing hearing loss, and found that eating a healthy diet is associated with a lower risk of acquired hearing loss in women.

New link between gut microbiome and artery hardening discovered

The level of diversity of the 'good bacteria' in our digestive systems has been found to be linked to a feature of cardiovascular disease -- hardening of the arteries -- in new research.

Prenatal marijuana use can affect infant size, behavior, study finds

Smoking during pregnancy has well-documented negative effects on birth weight in infants and is linked to several childhood health problems. Now, researchers have found that prenatal marijuana use also can have consequences on infants' weight and can influence behavior problems, especially when combined with tobacco use.

Dietary seaweed used to manipulate gut bacteria in mice

Scientists working with laboratory mice have shown that it's possible to favor the engraftment of one gut bacterial strain over others by manipulating the mice's diet. The researchers also have shown it's possible to control how much a bacterium grows in the intestine by calibrating the amount of a specific carbohydrate in each mouse's water or food.