Dietary fat is good? Dietary fat is bad? Coming to consensus

Which is better, a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet -- or is it the type of fat that matters? In a new paper, researchers with diverse expertise and perspectives on the issues laid out the case for each position and came to a consensus and a future research agenda.

Should you eat a low-gluten diet?

When healthy people eat a low-gluten and fiber-rich diet compared with a high-gluten diet they experience less intestinal discomfort including less bloating which researchers show are due to changes of the composition and function of gut bacteria. The new study also shows a modest weight loss following low-gluten dieting. The researchers attribute the impact of diet on healthy adults more to change in composition of dietary fibers than gluten itself.

Study of two tribes sheds light on role of Western-influenced diet in blood pressure

A South American tribe living in near-total isolation with no Western dietary influences showed no increase in average blood pressure from age one to age 60, according to a new study. In comparison, a nearby tribe whose diet includes some processed foods and salt did show higher blood pressure into late middle age.

Low-carb diets cause people to burn more calories

Most people regain the weight they lose from dieting within one or two years, in part because the body adapts by slowing metabolism and burning fewer calories. A meticulous study now finds that eating fewer carbohydrates increases the number of calories burned. The findings suggest that low-carb diets can help people maintain weight loss, making obesity treatment more effective.

Checking very preterm babies' head size can help identify long-term IQ problems

Regular early head circumference assessments add valuable information when screening for long-term neurocognitive risk - according to new research.

If your diet fails, try again; your heart will thank you

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease closely track with changes in eating patterns, even only after a month or so.

Weightlifting is good for your heart and it doesn't take much

Lifting weights for less than an hour a week may reduce your risk for a heart attack or stroke by 40 to 70 percent, according to a new study. Spending more than an hour in the weight room did not yield any additional benefit, the researchers found. The results show benefits of strength training are independent of running, walking or other aerobic activity.

Treating obesity: One size does not fit all

Understanding the very different characteristics of subgroups of obese patients may hold the key to devising more effective treatments and interventions, new research found.

'Strongest evidence yet' that being obese causes depression

New research has found the strongest evidence yet that obesity causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.

Weight during adolescence may affect pancreatic cancer risk in adulthood

New research has linked adolescent obesity with up to a four-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer later in life. The study's results also suggest that overweight and even higher weight within the 'normal' weight range in men may increase pancreatic cancer risk in a graded manner.

Big change from small player: Mitochondria alter body metabolism and gene expression

Mitochondria have their own DNA, but the 13 genes in human mitochondria -- along with DNA sequences for tRNAs, rRNAs and some small peptides -- are massively overshadowed by the 20,000 genes in the human nucleus. Nevertheless, these diminutive mitochondria may have a strong influence on cellular metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic diseases like heart failure or obesity.

How many calories do you burn? It depends on time of day

Researchers have made the surprising discovery that the number of calories people burn while at rest changes with the time of day. When at rest, people burn 10 percent more calories in the late afternoon and early evening than in the early morning hours.

Some factors have a greater impact on heart attack risk in women than they do in men

High blood pressure, smoking and diabetes increase the risk of heart attack in both sexes but they have more impact in women than they do in men.

Nasal delivery of weight-loss hormone eases breathing problems in sleeping mice

Experimenting with mice, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a hormone best known for helping regulate hunger and body weight might also ease breathing problems experienced during sleep more effectively when given through the nose.

Does a woman's weight gain during pregnancy affect children's bone health?

A new study has examined whether managing weight during pregnancy might affect children's bone mass. In under/normal weight mothers, weight gain during pregnancy was associated with slightly increased bone mass at seven years of age in children, while in overweight/obese mothers, no beneficial effect of weight gain on bone mass was observed.